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MaÎtre D'hÔtel Sauce


(Frying) - (The International Jewish Cook Book)

Frying is cooking in very hot fat or oil, and the secret of success is
to have the fat hot enough to harden the outer surface of the article to
be fried immediately and deep enough to cover these articles of food. As
the fat or oil can be saved and used many times, the use of a large
quantity is not extravagant.
To fry easily one must have, in addition to the deep, straight-sided
frying-pan, a frying-basket, made from galvanized wire, with a side
handle. The bale handles are apt to become heated, and in looking for
something to lift them, the foods are over-fried. The frying-pan must be
at least six inches deep with a flat bottom; iron, granite ware or
copper may be used, the first two are preferable. There must be
sufficient fat to wholly cover the articles fried, but the pan must not
be too full, or there is danger of overflow when heavy articles are put
in. After each frying, drain the fat or oil, put it into a receptacle
kept for the purpose, and use it over and over again as long as it
lasts. As the quantity begins to lessen, add sufficient fresh fat or oil
to keep up the amount.
Always put the fat or oil in the frying-pan before you stand it over the
Wait until it is properly heated before putting in the articles to be
Fry a few articles at a time. Too many will cool the fat or oil below
the point of proper frying and they will absorb grease and be
Put articles to be fried in the wire frying-basket and lower into the
boiling hot fat or oil. Test the fat by lowering a piece of stale bread
into it, if the bread browns in thirty seconds the fat is sufficiently
Fry croquettes a light brown; drain over the fat, lift the frying-basket
from the hot fat to a round plate, remove the articles from the basket
quickly to brown paper, drain a moment and serve.
When frying fish or any food that is to be used at a milk meal, use oil.
Olive oil is the best, but is very expensive for general use. Any other
good vegetable oil or nut oil will do as substitute.
When the food is intended for a meat meal; fat may be prepared according
to the following directions and used in the same manner as oil.
Cut the fat into small pieces. Put in a deep, iron kettle and cover with
cold water. Place on the stove uncovered; when the water has nearly all
evaporated, set the kettle back and let the fat try out slowly. When the
fat is still and scraps are shriveled and crisp at the bottom of the
kettle, strain the fat through a cloth into a stone crock, cover and set
it away in a cool place. The water may be omitted and the scraps slowly
tried out on back of stove or in moderate oven. When fat is tried out,
pour in crock.
Several slices of raw potato put with the fat will aid in the
All kinds of fats are good for drippings except mutton fat, turkey fat
and fat from smoked meats which has too strong a flavor to be used for
frying, but save it with other fat that may be unsuitable for frying,
and when six pounds are collected make it into hard soap.

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Cut slices of bread without crust, and dry them gradually in a cool
oven till quite dry and crisp, then roll them into fine crumbs, and
put them in a jar for use.

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Scale the fish with the utmost thoroughness, remove the entrails, wash
very thoroughly, and salt both inside and out. Then cut the fish into
convenient slices, place them on a strainer and leave them there for an
Meanwhile, place some flour in one plate and some beaten eggs in
another, and heat a large frying-pan half full of oil or butter. Now
wipe your fish slices thoroughly with a clean cloth, dip them first in
flour and then in beaten eggs and finally fry until browned.
In frying fish very hot oil is required. If a crumb of bread will brown
in twenty seconds the oil is hot enough. Put fish in a frying basket,
then into the hot oil and cook five minutes. Drain on brown paper and
arrange on platter. Do not stick knife or fork into fish while it is
When the oil has cooled, strain it, pour it into a jar, cover it and it
will be ready for use another time. It can be used again for fish only.

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Thoroughly mix six ounces of flour with an ounce of olive oil, the yolk
of an egg, and a pinch of salt. Stir in one gill of tepid water and
allow the whole to stand for half an hour in a cool place. Next beat the
white of an egg stiff and stir into the batter. Dip each fish into the
mixture, then roll in bread crumbs and cook in boiling oil. Butter must
not be used. In frying fish do not allow the fish to remain in the
spider after it has been nicely browned, for this absorbs the fat and
destroys the delicate flavor. Be sure that the fish is done. This rule
applies to fish that is sautéd.

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1/4 lb. Flour--1/2d.

1/2 gill Tepid Water

White of Egg

1 dessertspoonful Oil--1d.

Total Cost--11/2 d.

Time--5 Minutes.

Sift the flour into a basin, pour over it the oil, then the water, and
beat into a smooth batter; stand away for an hour, if possible
in a cool place. Whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth, and stir
it in, and it is ready to use. This batter is useful for fritters and
many dishes both sweet and savoury.

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The rules for roasting meat apply to broiling, except that instead of
cooking in the oven it is quickly browned, first on one side and then
on other, over hot coals or directly under a gas flame, turning every
minute until done. Meat an inch and one-half thick will broil in 8 to
15 minutes. Season after it is cooked.

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Paste For Frying

(Pastella per fritto)

Dilute three teaspoonfuls of flour with two teaspoonfuls of oil. Add two

eggs, a pinch of salt, and mix well. This mixture will take on the

aspect of a smooth cream and is used to glaze fried brains, sweetbreads

and the like. All these things are first to be scalded in boiling salt

water. Add a pinch of salt and one of pepper when taking from the water.

The brains, sweetbreads etc. are then to be cut in irregular pieces,

thrown into the paste, or cream, described above and fried in oil or

good lard.

In frying these are often united to liver or veal cutlets. The liver

must be cut in very thin slices and the cutlets beaten with the side of

a big knife and given a good shape. Season with salt and pepper, dip in

beaten egg and after a few hours sprinkle with bread crumbs and fry.

Serve with lemon.

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Frying In Oil

A medium-sized iron saucepan and a wire basket to fit it easily should

be kept for this purpose. Fill about a third of the saucepan with oil

(be quite sure that the quality is good), put in the wire basket, and

place the saucepan over the fire or gas, and after a few minutes watch

it carefully to see when it begins to boil. This will be notified by the

oil becoming quite still, and emitting a thin blue vapour. Directly this

is observed, drop the articles to be fried gently into the basket, taking

care not to overcrowd them, or their shape will be quite spoiled. When

they have become a golden brown, lift out the basket, suspend it for one

moment over the saucepan to allow the oil to run back, then carefully

turn the fritters on to some soft paper, and serve piled on a hot dish,

not forgetting to use a fish paper.

When cold, the oil should be strained through a fine strainer, lined

with a piece of muslin. It is then ready for use again with a little

more added.

Should the oil become burnt, it must of course be thrown away.

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Directions For Broiling Boiling And Frying Fish

Fish for boiling or broiling are the best the day after they are caught.

They should be cleaned when first caught, washed in cold water, and half

a tea cup of salt sprinkled on the inside of them. If they are to be

broiled, sprinkle pepper on the inside of them--keep them in a cool

place. When fish is broiled, the bars of the gridiron should be rubbed

over with a little butter, and the inside of the fish put towards the

fire, and not turned till the fish is nearly cooked through--then butter

the skin side, and turn it over--fish should be broiled slowly. When

fresh fish is to be boiled, it should either be laid on a fish strainer,

or sewed up in a cloth--if not, it is very difficult to take it out of

the pot without breaking. Put the fish into cold water, with the back

bone down. To eight or ten pounds of fish, put half of a small tea cup

of salt. Boil the fish until you can draw out one of the fins

easily--most kinds of fish will boil sufficiently in the course of

twenty or thirty minutes, some kinds will boil in less time. Some cooks

do not put their fish into the water till it boils, but it is not a good

plan, as the outside gets cooked too much, and breaks to pieces before

the inside is sufficiently done. Fish for frying, after being cleaned

and washed, should be put into a cloth to have it absorb the moisture.

They should be dried perfectly, and a little flour rubbed over them. No

salt should be put on them, if you wish to have them brown well. For

five or six pounds of fish, fry three or four slices of salt pork--when

brown, take them up, and if they do not make fat sufficient to fry the

fish in, add a little lard. When the fish are fried enough, take them

up, and for good plain gravy, mix two or three tea spoonsful of flour

with a little water, and stir it into the fat the fish was fried in--put

in a little butter, pepper, and salt, if you wish to have the gravy

rich--add spices, catsup and wine--turn the gravy over the fish. Boiled

fish should be served up with drawn butter, or liver sauce, (see

directions for making each, Nos. 41 and 51.) Fish, when put on the

platter, should not be laid over each other if it can be avoided, as the

steam from the under ones makes those on the top so moist, that they

will break to pieces when served out.

Great care and punctuality is necessary in cooking fish. If not done

sufficiently, or if done too much, they are not good. They should be

eaten as soon as cooked. For a garnish to the fish, use parsely, a

lemon, or eggs boiled hard, and cut in slices.

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This is a very good method of cooking fish, and of warming cold

meat and vegetables. To fry well put into your frying pan enough fat to

cover what you mean to fry, and let it get smoking hot, but do not burn

it; then put in your food, and it will not soak fat, and will generally

be done by the time it is nicely browned. To SAUTE, or HALF FRY any

article, you should begin by putting in the pan enough fat to cover the

bottom, and let it get smoking hot, but not burnt before you put in the

food. This also is a good way to warm over meat, vegetables, oatmeal, or


A very good way to cook meat and vegetables together is to put them in

an earthen jar, cover it tightly, and cement the cover on with flour

paste; then bake for about four hours.

If you are going to use a piece of meat cold do not cut it until it

cools, and it will be more juicy. If the meat is salt let it cool in its

own pot liquor, for the same reason.

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Frying Batter

This batter will do nicely for chicken, fish, clams,

cold boiled parsnips, or fruit of any kind, of which you wish to make

fritters. The oil is added to it for the purpose of making it crisp.

Many persons object to the use of oil in cooking, from a most foolish

prejudice. It is a pure vegetable fat, wholesome and nutritious in the

highest degree; and the sooner our American housewives learn to use it

in cooking the better it will be for both health and purse. I do not

mean the expensive oil, sold at fine grocery stores for a dollar a

bottle, but a good sweet kind which can be bought at French Epicerie

or German Delicatessen depots for about two dollars and fifty cents a

gallon. Make the batter by mixing together four heaping tablespoonfuls

of flour, (cost one cent,) a level teaspoonful of salt, the yolk of one

egg, (cost one or two cents,) two tablespoonfuls of oil, (cost one

cent,) and one gill of water, or a quantity sufficient to make a thick

batter; just as you are ready to use it, beat the white of the egg, and

stir it into the batter; the cost will be three or four cents, and the

use of it will double the size and nicety of your dish.

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