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VEGETABLES

(Salad Dressings) - (The International Jewish Cook Book)







Young peas, canned tomatoes, green corn, asparagus, spinach, Brussels
sprouts--15 to 20 minutes.
Rice, potatoes, macaroni, summer squash, celery, cauliflower, young
cabbage, peas--20 to 30 minutes.
Young turnips, young beets, young carrots, young parsnips, tomatoes,
baked potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, cabbage, cauliflower--30 to 45
minutes.
String beans, shell beans, oyster plant, winter squash--45 to 60
minutes.
Winter vegetables--one to two hours.
Salads are divided into two groups, dinner salads and the more
substantial ones served at supper and luncheon in the place of meats.
They are exceedingly wholesome.
Nearly all the meats, vegetables, and fruits may be served as salads.
The essential thing is to have the salad fresh and cold; and if green,
to have the leaves crisp and dry.
Lettuce, Romaine, endive and chicory or escarole make the best dinner
salads, although one may use mixed cooked vegetables or well-prepared
uncooked cabbage.
Left-over green vegetables, string beans, peas, carrots, turnips,
cauliflower, cooked spinach, leeks and beets may all take their place in
the dinner salad. Use them mixed, alone, or as a garnish for lettuce.
Lettuce and all green, raw salad vegetables should be washed and soaked
in cold water as soon as they come from the market. After they have
stood fifteen to twenty minutes in cold or ice water, free them from
moisture by swinging them in a wire basket, or dry, without bruising,
each leaf carefully with a napkin. Put them in a cheese-cloth bag and on
the ice, ready for service. In this way they will remain dry and cold,
and will keep nicely for a week.
The dressing is added only at the moment of serving, as the salad wilts
if allowed to stand after the dressing is added.
Meat of any kind used for salads should be cut into dice, but not
smaller than one-half inch, or it will seem like hash. It should be
marinated before being mixed with the other parts of the salad. Meat
mixtures are usually piled in cone-shape on a dish, the mayonnaise then
spread over it, and garnished with lettuce, capers, hard-boiled eggs,
gherkins, etc.
To Marinate.--Take one part of oil and three of vinegar, with pepper
and salt for taste; stir them into the meat, and let it stand a couple
of hours; drain off any of the marinade which has not been absorbed
before combining the meat with the other parts of the salad. Use only
enough marinade to season the meat or fish.
If too much vinegar is added to mayonnaise it robs it of its consistency
and flavor. All salads must be mixed at the last minute, at serving
time. Mayonnaise dressing may be made hours before and the meat, lettuce
and celery prepared, but each must be kept in a separate dish until
mixing time.

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Vegetables and Sundries.

DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING AND BOILING VEGETABLES.
Vegetables are extremely nutritious when sufficiently boiled, but are
unwholesome and indigestible when not thoroughly dressed; still they
should not be over boiled, or they will lose their flavor.
Vegetables should be shaken to get out any insects, and laid in water
with a little salt.
Soft water is best suited for boiling vegetables, and they require
plenty of water; a little salt should be put in the saucepan with
them, and the water should almost invariably be boiling when they are
put in.
Potatoes are much better when steamed. Peas and several other
vegetables are also improved by this mode of cooking them, although it
is seldom adopted in England.

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PUREE OF VEGETABLES.

Take any vegetable that may be approved, boil till well done, drain
away all water, reduce the vegetable to a pulp, and add to it any fine
sauce, to make it of the consistency of a very thick custard.

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WHITE SAUCE (FOR VEGETABLES)

Place two tablespoons of butter in a saucepan; stir until melted: add
two tablespoons of flour mixed with one-fourth of a teaspoon of salt and
a few grains of pepper. Stir until smooth. Add one cup of milk gradually
and continue to stir until well mixed and thick. Chopped parsley may be
added. Used for creamed vegetables--potatoes, celery, onion, peas, etc.

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EARLY FALL VEGETABLES

Take new firkins or large stone jars, and scald them well with boiling
water before using. Vegetables that are boiled before pickling in a
brass kettle always keep their fresh, green color. In salt pickling
cover your jars or kegs with a clean, white cloth, then a cover made of
wood and last a heavy stone to weigh it down. The cloth must be removed
every other day, washed and put back. In doing this, take hold of the
cloth at each corner, so that none of the slimy substance can get into
your pickle, and wash the top and sides of the jar also.

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VEGETABLES--WHITE POTATOES

Potatoes are one of the most valuable of vegetables. White potatoes,
after being pared, should be put in a stew-pan over the fire with a
little boiling water, but not enough to cover them. The water should
be kept boiling continuously. About thirty minutes from the time they
commence boiling will be the time required for cooking potatoes of
ordinary size. It spoils potatoes to have the water stop boiling even
for a short time. Add half a teaspoonful of salt to the potatoes when
partly boiled and when cooked sufficiently drain the water from them
at _once_ and sprinkle a little salt over the dry potatoes. Close the
lid of the stew-pan tightly, give it a quick shake, when the potatoes
will he found dry and flaky. Mash fine with a potato masher, adding a
tablespoonful of butter and a couple tablespoonfuls of milk. Let stand
a minute on the hot range to heat the milk, then beat all together
with a fork until creamy. Add more salt if necessary. That is quite
important, as potatoes require considerable salt. Cover the potatoes
with a cloth. Never allow to stand with the lid of the stew-pan over
them, as it will draw moisture. Serve white potatoes as soon as
possible after being cooked, as they are not appetizing when allowed
to stand any length of time.

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TIME REQUIRED TO COOK VEGETABLES

Bake good-sized potatoes in oven about 45 minutes. Smaller potatoes
require less time to bake.
Boil ordinary sized potatoes 25 to 30 minutes.
_Steam_ asparagus from 30 to 40 minutes.
Boil young beets about 60 minutes or longer.
Old beets, two hours, or until tender.
Green corn on cob about 10 or 15 minutes.
Cauliflower, 30 minutes.
Cabbage, 30 to 40 minutes.
Turnips and carrots, 40 minutes.
String beans, 60 minutes to 2 hours.
Lima beans, 45 minutes to 1 hour.
Onions about 1 hour.
Squash about 30 minutes.
Parsnips, 30 to 40 minutes.
Sweet potatoes, good size, 40 minutes.
Spinach, 25 minutes.
Tomatoes, 25 minutes.
Salt should be added to the water when boiling potatoes, carrots,
cabbage, parsnips, turnips and onions, even if liquid in which they
were boiled is drained from them after being cooked, before being
seasoned. Add a small pinch of baking soda to the water in which
string beans are boiled, and they will cook tender in less time.
Especially should this be done if the beans are not young and tender.

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SALAD OF COLD VEGETABLES

Take any cold vegetables that there may be in the larder--such as
potatoes, cauliflowers, peas, beans, haricots, &c. Slice up the
potatoes, branch the cauliflower, and mix in the peas and beans; put
all into a salad bowl. Take oil and vinegar in the proportion of one of
oil to two of vinegar, blend them together and season with salt and
pepper. Pour this over the vegetables, slice up one or two hard boiled
eggs into very thin slices, and lay round as a garnish.

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CASSOLETTES OF VEGETABLES

Peel some turnips and scoop out the centre; boil them in salt and water
till soft, but quite whole. If there are any cold vegetables in the
larder, such as beans, peas, carrots, and parsnips, make them hot; if
not, cut some into small pieces and boil separately. Stir them into any
cold sauce that may be left, or toss them in a little butter. Fill the
turnip cups with these, arranging them on a dish, alternately red and
green. Serve hot.

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CURRIED VEGETABLES

Take any vegetables in season, such as potatoes, peas, carrots, beans,
and cauliflowers, very young vegetables are the best, and if there are
any cold ones in the larder they will do as well as fresh. Slice up the
potatoes and branch the cauliflowers, and, if they are not been boiled
before, boil them in water seasoned with a little salt and sugar, for
ten minutes, and strain off the water. Put one ounce or more of butter
into a saucepan according to the quantity of vegetables, and when hot
stir in half an ounce of flour, and the same of curry powder. Pour in
half a pint of milk and stir till it boils. Then put in the vegetables
and simmer very gently for about half an hour. They should not
be broken, but quite soft, and all the liquor absorbed. Pile in a hot
dish and serve with boiled rice.

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VEGETABLES

2 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
1/2 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
few grains cayenne
1 cup grated American cheese
yolks of 3 eggs
2 teaspoons Dr. Price's Baking Powder
whites of 3 eggs
Melt butter; add flour, and when well mixed add milk slowly. Add salt,
cayenne, and cheese. Remove from fire, add beaten yolks of eggs. Cool
mixture and mix in baking powder and beaten egg whites. Bake in
greased dish 25 minutes in slow oven. Serve at once.









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