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(Bread) - (The International Jewish Cook Book)

Set the dough at night and bake early in the morning; take one-half cake
of compressed yeast, set in a cup of lukewarm milk or water adding a
teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar. Let this rise, if it does
not, the yeast is not fresh or good. Measure eight cups of sifted flour
into a deep bread bowl, add one teaspoon of salt; make a depression in
the centre, pour in the risen yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk or
water. In winter be sure that the bowl, flour, milk, in fact everything
has been thoroughly warmed before mixing. Mix the dough slowly with a
wooden spoon and then knead as directed.
This amount will make two loaves, either twisted or in small bread pans.
Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.
If the bread is set in the morning use a cake of compressed yeast and
bake the loaves in the afternoon.

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To one quart of potato water, drained from potatoes which were boiled
for mid-day dinner, she added about 1/2 cup of finely-mashed hot
potatoes and stood aside. About four o'clock in the afternoon she
placed one pint of lukewarm potato water and mashed potatoes in a bowl
with 1/4 cup of granulated sugar and 1/2 a dissolved Fleischman's
yeast cake, beat all well together, covered with a cloth and stood in
a warm place until light and foamy. About nine o'clock in the evening
she added the reserved pint of (lukewarm) potato water and 1/2
tablespoonful of salt to the yeast sponge, with enough warmed,
well-dried flour to stiffen, and kneaded it until dough was
fine-grained. She also cut through the dough frequently with a sharp
knife. When the dough was elastic and would not adhere to
molding-board or hands, she placed it in a bowl, brushed melted lard
or butter over top to prevent a crust forming, covered warmly with a
cloth and allowed it to stand until morning. Frau Schmidt always rose
particularly early on bake day, for fear the sponge might fall or
become sour, if allowed to stand too long. She molded the dough into
four small loaves, placed it in pans to rise until it doubled its
original bulk. When light she baked it one hour. Bread made according
to these directions was fine-grained, sweet and wholesome. She always
cut several gashes across top of loaf with a sharp knife when loaves
were set to rise, to allow gas to escape.

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Prepare the following "Yeast Sponge" at noon, the day preceding that
on which you bake bread: Place in a bowl (after the mid-day meal) 1
quart of potato water (containing no salt), in which potatoes were
boiled; also two medium-sized, finely-mashed potatoes, 1 tablespoonful
of sugar and, when luke warm, add 1 cup of good home-made or baker's
yeast. Mix all well together; then divide this mixture and pour each
half into each of two 1-quart glass fruit jars. Place covers tightly
on jars and shake each jar well, to mix yeast and potato-water
thoroughly. Stand yeast in a warm place near the kitchen range over
night. Jars should be _covered only_ with a napkin. The sponge should
become light and foamy. In the morning use this freshly-prepared yeast
to set sponge for bread.
When preparing to set bread, place in a large bowl 1 pint of potato
water, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, 1 pint of the yeast sponge, 1/2
teaspoonful of salt, and use about 3 pounds of sifted flour,
well-dried and warmed. Knead from 15 to 20 minutes, until a stiff
dough is formed. The dough should be fine-grained and elastic and not
stick to bake board. Place dough in the bowl to rise; this should lake
about four hours. When well-risen and light knead down and set to rise
again, about 1-1/2 hours. When light, mold into three large, shapely
loaves; place in pans and allow to stand one hour. When loaves have
doubled in bulk, are very light and show signs of cracking, invert a
pan over top of loaves (if that was not done when loaves were put in
pans), and place in a rather hot oven to bake. Brush melted butter
over loaves of bread when set to rise, it will cause bread to have a
crisp crust when baked. The old-fashioned way of testing the heat of
an oven was to hold the hand in the oven, if possible, while one
counted thirty.
The pint of yeast remaining in jar may be kept in a cool place one
week, and may be used during this time in making fresh "yeast foam."
This should always be prepared the day before baking bread. Always
prepare double the quantity of "yeast foam." Use half to set bread,
and reserve half for next baking. Bread baked from this recipe has
frequently taken first prize at County Fairs and Farmers' Picnics.
When baking bread, the oven should be quite hot when bread is first
placed therein, when the bread should rise about an inch; then the
heat of the oven should he lessened and in a half hour a brown crust
should begin forming; and during the latter part of the hour (the time
required for baking an ordinary-sized loaf) the heat of the oven
should be less, causing the bread to bake slowly. Should the heat of
the oven not be great enough, when the loaves are placed within for
baking, then poor bread would be the result. This method of making
bread will insure most satisfactory results, although more troublesome
than ordinary methods.

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1 quart potato water.
1 mashed potato.
1 tablespoonful butter or lard.
1 tablespoonful sugar.
1 Fleischman yeast cake, or 1 cup good yeast.
1/2 tablespoonful salt.
Flour to stiffen (about three quarts).
At 9 o'clock in the evening put in a large bowl the mashed potato, the
quart of luke-warm potato water (water in which potatoes were boiled
for dinner), butter or sweet lard, sugar, salt, and mix with flour
into a batter, to which add the Fleischman's or any good yeast cake,
dissolved in a little luke-warm water. Beat well and stir in flour
until quite stiff, turn out on a well-floured bake-board and knead
well about 25 minutes, until the dough is smooth, fine-grained and
elastic, and does not stick lo the bake-board or hands. Chop a knife
through the dough several times; knead and chop again. This makes the
bread finer and closer-grained, or, so Aunt Sarah thought. Knead in
all the flour necessary when first mixing the bread. When sufficiently
kneaded, form into a large, round ball of dough, rub all over with
soft lard, or butter, to prevent forming a crust on top and keep from
sticking to bowl, and set to rise, closely-covered with a cloth and
blanket, in a warm place until morning. In the morning the bread
should be very light, doubled in quantity. Take out enough dough for
an ordinary loaf, separate this into three parts, roll each piece with
the hand on the bake-board into long, narrow pieces. Pinch the three
pieces together at one end and braid, or plait, into a narrow loaf.
Brush over top with melted butter; set to rise in a warm place in a
bread pan, closely-covered, until it doubles in size--or, if
preferred, mold into ordinary-shaped loaves, and let rise until
doubled in size, when bake in a moderately-hot oven with steady heat.
Frequently, when the "Twist" loaves of bread were quite light and
ready to be placed in the oven, Aunt Sarah brushed the tops with yolk
of egg, or a little milk, then strewed "Poppy Seeds" thickly over. The
poppy seeds give an agreeable flavor to the crust of the bread.

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Quick White Bread

Three pints of flour, an even teaspoonful of salt, two cakes of

compressed yeast dissolved in tepid water and enough milk to make a soft

dough. Set in the morning,--it will require about an hour and a half to

rise, and, after making into loaves, about ten minutes.

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White Bread Griddle Cakes

Chop as much stale bread as will measure two cupfuls, put it into a bowl

and pour over it a cupful of sweet, rich milk, let it soak for an hour.

When ready to bake the cakes, mash the bread in the milk with a wooden

spoon, add a heaping teaspoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, two

tablespoonfuls of melted butter, two well-beaten eggs, sift into the

mixture a cupful of white flour and an even teaspoonful of soda, stir

well together, then add a cupful of sour milk and bake on a griddle.

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White Bread Balls

Take four ounces of bread from which the crust has been removed, cut it

into dice. Put half a cup of milk in a saucepan with two ounces of

butter and a teaspoonful of sugar, let it come to a boil, then stir in

the bread and continue stirring until it no longer cleaves to the pan,

remove from the fire. When cool stir into it two eggs, one at a time,

and a little salt. Cook in boiling water, as described for other balls,

and serve in a cream sauce as a vegetable. (See spinach balls, page 74.)

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White Bread

Add a pint of water to a pint of scalded milk; when lukewarm add one

compressed yeast cake, moistened, and a teaspoonful of salt. Add

sufficient flour gradually, beating all the while, to make a dough.

Knead this dough until it is soft and elastic, and free from stickiness.

Put it into a greased bowl, stand it in a warm place three hours.

Separate it into loaves, knead five minutes, put the loaves in square

greased pans and stand aside until very light. Slash the top with a

sharp knife, brush with water, and bake in a moderate oven

three-quarters of an hour. This should make two loaves, or a dozen bread

sticks and a dozen rolls.

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