Poultry(Marketing.) - (Twenty-five Cent Dinners For Families Of Six)
Both poultry and game are less nutritious than meat, but they
are more digestible, and consequently are better food than meat for
persons of weak digestive organs and sedentary habits. They are both
excellent for persons who think or write much. Fresh poultry may be
known by its full bright eyes, pliable feet, and soft moist skin; the
best is plump, fat, and nearly white, and the grain of the flesh is
fine. The feet and neck of a young fowl are large in proportion to its
size, and the tip of the breast-bone is soft, and easily bent between
the fingers; a young cock, has soft, loose spurs, and a long, full,
bright red comb; old fowls have long, thin necks and feet, and the flesh
on the legs and back has a purplish shade; chickens and fowls are always
Turkeys are good when white and plump, have full breasts and smooth
legs, generally black, with soft loose spurs; hen turkeys are smaller,
fatter, and plumper, but of inferior flavor; full grown turkeys are the
best for boiling, as they do not tear in dressing; old turkeys have long
hairs, and the flesh is purplish where it shows under the skin on the
legs and back. About March they deteriorate in quality.
Young ducks and geese are plump, with light, semi-transparent fat, soft
breast-bone, tender flesh, leg joints which will break by the weight of
the bird, fresh colored and brittle beaks, and windpipes that break
when pressed between the thumb and forefinger. They are best in fall and
Young pigeons have light red flesh upon the breast, and full, fresh
colored legs; when the legs are thin, and the breast is very dark, the
birds are old.
TO WARM COLD POULTRY.Cut up the pieces required to be dressed, spread over them a seasoning
as for cutlets, and fry them; pour over a little good gravy, and
garnish with sippets of toast and sliced lemon, or place them in an
edging of rice or mashed potatoes.
TO DRESS AND CLEAN POULTRYSinge by holding the fowl over a flame from gas, alcohol or burning
paper. Pick off pin feathers. Cut off the nails, then cut off the head,
turn back the skin and cut the neck off quite close; take out windpipe
and crop, cutting off close to the body. Cut through the skin around the
leg one inch below the leg joint; take out the tendons and break the leg
at the joint; in old birds each tendon must be removed separately by
using a skewer.
Make an incision just below the breast bone large enough to insert your
hand, take out the fat and loosen the entrails with your forefinger.
When everything is removed, cut off the wings close to the body, also
the neck, feet and head. Separate the gall from the liver. In doing this
be very careful not to break the gall, which has a very thin skin.
Scrape all the fat off carefully that adheres to the entrails and lay it
in a separate dish of water overnight. Cut open the gizzard, clean and
pull off the skin, or inner lining.
Make Kosher as directed in "Rules for Kashering".
If you make use of the head, which you may in soup, cut off the top of
the bill, split open the head, lengthwise, take out the brains, eyes and
Clean the gizzard and feet by laying them in scalding water for a few
moments, this will loosen the skin, which can then be easily removed.
Remove the oil bag from the upper side of tail.
After making Kosher and cleaning poultry, season all fowls for several
hours before cooking. Salt, pepper, and ginger are the proper seasoning.
Some like a tiny bit of garlic rubbed inside and outside, especially for
goose or duck.
Dress and clean goose, duck, squab, and turkey as directed for chicken.
TO STUFF POULTRYUse enough stuffing to fill the bird but do not pack it tightly or the
stuffing will be soggy. Close the small openings with a skewer; sew the
larger one with linen thread and a long needle. Remove skewers and
strings before serving.
MEAT DRESSING FOR POULTRYIf you cannot buy sausage meat at your butcher's have him chop some for
you, adding a little fat. Also mix in some veal with the beef while
chopping. Season with salt, pepper, nutmeg or thyme. Grate in a piece of
celery root and a piece of garlic about the size of a bean, add a small
onion, a minced tomato, a quarter of a loaf of stale bread; also grated,
and mix up the whole with one egg. If you prefer, you may soak the
bread, press out every drop of water and dry in a heated spider with
ROAST POULTRYSinge fowl over free flame. Cut off head just below bill. Untie feet,
break bone and loosen sinews just below joint; pull out sinews and cut
off feet. Cut out oil sac. Lay breast down, slit skin down backbone
toward head; loosen windpipe and crop and pull out. Push back skin
from neck and cut off neck close to body. Make slit below end of
breastbone, put in fingers, loosen intestines from backbone, take firm
grasp of gizzard and draw all out. Cut around vent so that intestines
are unbroken. Remove heart and lungs. Remove kidneys. See that inside
looks clean, let cold water run through, then wipe inside and out with
wet cloth. Cut through thick fleshy part of gizzard and remove inside
heavy skin without breaking, then cut away gristly part so that only
thick, fleshy part is used.
White Celery Sauce For Boiled PoultryTake five or six heads of celery--cut off the green tops, cut up the
remainder into small bits, and boil it till tender, in half a pint of
water--mix two or three tea spoonsful of flour smoothly with a little
milk--then add half a tea cup more of milk, stir it in, add a small lump
of butter, and a little salt. When it boils, take it up.
Brown Sauce For PoultryPeel two or three onions, cut them in slices, flour and fry them brown,
in a little butter--then sprinkle in a little flour, pepper, salt, and
sage--add half a pint of the liquor the poultry was boiled in, and a
table spoonful of catsup. Let it boil up, then stir in half a wine glass
of wine if you like.
Forcemeat For Veal Or PoultrySteep four ounces of dry bread, (cost
two cents,) in warm water, and wring it dry in a clean towel; chop one
cent's worth of onion and fry it light yellow in one cent's worth of
drippings, add the bread to it, season it with one level teaspoonful of
salt, quarter of a level teaspoonful each of pepper and powdered thyme,
or mixed spice, and stir these ingredients over the fire until they are
scalding hot; then stir in one egg, and use the stuffing; the cost will
be about five cents.
After stuffing the shoulder, lay it in a dripping pan with one cent's
worth of soup greens, and put it in a hot oven to brown it quickly; when
it is brown take it out of the oven, season with salt and pepper, baste
it with a little sweet drippings, return it to the oven, and bake it
thoroughly fifteen minutes to each pound. Meantime wash one quart of
potatoes, (cost three cents,) pare a ring off each one, and boil them in
plenty of boiling water and salt. When the veal is done take it up on a
hot dish, pour half a pint of boiling water in the dripping pan, scrape
it well, and strain the contents; set this gravy again over the fire to
boil while you mix a tablespoonful of flour, in half a cup of cold
water; stir this smoothly into the gravy, boil it for five minutes, and
serve it with the roast veal and boiled potatoes.
Be careful to save all that remains from the dinner, towards making the
VEAL AND HAM PATTIES; the proportionate cost will be about thirty cents.
To Preserve Tainted PoultryHave a large cask that has been just emptied, with part of a stave or
two knocked out at the head, and into the others drive hooks to hang
your fowls, but not so as to touch one another, covering the open places
with the staves or boards already knocked out, but leaving the bung-hole
open as an air vent. Let them dry in a cool place, and in this way you
may keep fish or flesh.
Dandy Sauce For All Sorts Of Poultry And GamePut a glass of white wine into a stewpan, with half a lemon cut in
slices, a little rasped bread, two spoonfuls of oil, a bunch of parsley
and scallions, a handful of mushrooms, a clove of garlic, a little
tarragon, one clove, three spoonfuls of rich cullis, and a thin slice of
fine smoked ham. Let the whole boil together till it is of a fine rich
consistency; pass it through the sieve; then give it another turn over
the fire, and serve it up hot.
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